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The Book The Poisonwood Bible
The Author Barbara Kingsolver
The Publisher Faber & Faber
Release Date2008-09-04
Genre Fiction
Pages 640
ISBN 9780571246212
Language English, Spanish, And French

READING: Barbara Kingsolver's acclaimed international bestseller tells the story of an American missionary family in the Congo during a poignant chapter in African history. It spins the tale of the fierce evangelical Baptist, Nathan Price, who takes his wife and four daughters on a missionary journey into the heart of darkness of the Belgian Congo in 1959. They carry with them to Africa all they believe they will need from home, but soon find that all of it - from garden seeds to the King James Bible - is calamitously transformed on African soil. Told from the perspective of the five women, this is a compelling exploration of African history, religion, family, and the many paths to redemption. The Poisonwood Bible was nominated for the Pulitzer Prize in 1999 and was chosen as the best reading group novel ever at the Penguin/Orange Awards. It continues to be read and adored by millions worldwide.


The Book Wat het hart verwoest
The Author John Boyne
The Publisher J.M. Meulenhoff
Release Date2017-10-13
Genre Fiction
Pages
ISBN 9789402309775
Language English, Spanish, And French

READING: De grootse nieuwe roman van de auteur van De jongen in de gestreepte pyjama en De grote stilte Voor de liefhebbers van De as van mijn moeder van Frank McCourt Ierland, 1945. Cyril wordt geboren als bastaardzoon van een verstoten tienermeisje. Het welgestelde echtpaar Avery adopteert hem, maar Cyril vraagt zich vaak af waarom, want zijn adoptieouders laten geen gelegenheid onbenut om hem op het hart te drukken dat hij geen echte Avery is. Hij voelt zich ook geen Avery, en hij voelt zich ook niet thuis in het katholieke naoorlogse Ierland. Pas als hij de flamboyante charmeur Julian Woodbead ontmoet, is de eerste stap naar de zoektocht van zijn identiteit gezet – een zoektocht die hem tot in Amsterdam en New York voert, in een poging het geluk en de liefde te vinden. John Boyne verbeeldt op fenomenale wijze de verlossende kracht van de menselijke geest, en laat de lezer en passant voelen hoe onwelkom de wereld kan zijn voor zoekende zielen. De pers over Wat het hart verwoest ‘Afwisselend slim, geestig en hartverscheurend triest. Dit is een schrijver op de top van zijn kunnen.’ Mail on Sunday ‘Groots en slim en vaak erg grappig.’ The Sunday Times ‘Een picareske, ronddwalende odyssee voor de afzonderlijke karakters. Het boek brandt haast van woede over de levens die worden verwoest door sociale minachting en zelfhaat. Een aanzienlijke prestatie.’ The Guardian ‘Een episch verhaal vol verve, humor en liefde. Dit zal een groot publiek aanspreken.’ The Irish Times ‘Boyne creëert licht in de verdoemenis, en humor in de meest hartverscheurend trieste situaties. Een fantastische leeservaring.’ Press Association


The Book Barbara Kingsolver s The Poisonwood Bible
The Author Linda Wagner-Martin
The Publisher Bloomsbury Academic
Release Date2001-09-01
Genre Literary Criticism
Pages 96
ISBN 0826452345
Language English, Spanish, And French

READING: Continuum Contemporaries will be a wonderful source of ideas and inspiration for members of book clubs and readings groups, as well as for literature students.The aim of the series is to give readers accessible and informative introductions to 30 of the most popular, most acclaimed, and most influential novels of recent years. A team of contemporary fiction scholars from both sides of the Atlantic has been assembled to provide a thorough and readable analysis of each of the novels in question. The books in the series will all follow the same structure:a biography of the novelist, including other works, influences, and, in some cases, an interview; a full-length study of the novel, drawing out the most important themes and ideas; a summary of how the novel was received upon publication; a summary of how the novel has performed since publication, including film or TV adaptations, literary prizes, etc.; a wide range of suggestions for further reading, including websites and discussion forums; and a list of questions for reading groups to discuss.


The Book CliffsNotes on Kingsolver s The Poisonwood Bible
The Author Kris Fulkerson
The Publisher Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
Release Date2010-02-04
Genre Literary Criticism
Pages 52
ISBN 9780544183339
Language English, Spanish, And French

READING: The original CliffsNotes study guides offer expert commentary on major themes, plots, characters, literary devices, and historical background. In CliffsNotes on Kingsolver's The Poisonwood Bible, you explore life in 20th-century Congo as you follow the ordeal of missionary Nathan Price and his family, who are woefully unprepared to deal with life in such a drastically different culture and climate. Nathan is inflexible in his approach to both the Congolese and his family, and his wife and daughters are overwhelmed by their changed circumstances. The story of this family's struggle against the backdrop of the Congolese independence movement makes The Poisonwood Bible Kingsolver's most powerful novel yet. This study guide carefully walks you through every step of the Price family's journey by providing summaries and critical analyses of each book of the novel. You'll also explore the life and background of the author, Barbara Kingsolver. Other features that help you study include An overview of the novel A character map that graphically illustrates the relationships among the characters A glossary of important terms and phrases from the novel Classic literature or modern-day treasure—you'll understand it all with expert information and insight from CliffsNotes study guides.


The Book The Poisonwood Bible Downloadable Ap Teaching Unit
The Author Barbara Kingsolver
The Publisher
Release Date2011-01-01
Genre
Pages
ISBN 1935468634
Language English, Spanish, And French

READING: Scoring a 5 on the AP Test Has Just Become Easier You no longer have to choose between "teaching the work" or "teaching to the test." Prestwick House Advanced Placement Teaching Units allow you to do both. Because we wanted the Prestwick House AP Teaching Units to meet the rigorous demands of the Advanced Placement class, we wrote detailed study guides that focus on the types of literary knowledge your students will have to demonstrate on their AP exams.


The Book A Study Guide for Barbara Kingsolver s The Poisonwood Bible
The Author Gale, Cengage Learning
The Publisher Gale, Cengage Learning
Release Date2015-03-13
Genre Literary Criticism
Pages 15
ISBN 9781410336439
Language English, Spanish, And French

READING: A Study Guide for Barbara Kingsolver's "The Poisonwood Bible," excerpted from Gale's acclaimed Novels for Students.This concise study guide includes plot summary; character analysis; author biography; study questions; historical context; suggestions for further reading; and much more. For any literature project, trust Novels for Students for all of your research needs.


The Book Ready Reference Treatise The Poisonwood Bible
The Author Raja Sharma
The Publisher Lulu.com
Release Date
Genre
Pages
ISBN 9781300892489
Language English, Spanish, And French
The Book The Poisonwood Bible Student Packet
The Author Anne Troy
The Publisher
Release Date2009
Genre
Pages
ISBN 1561375691
Language English, Spanish, And French
The Book The Poisonwood Bible Ap Teaching Unit
The Author Barbara Kingsolver
The Publisher
Release Date2011-01-01
Genre
Pages
ISBN 1935468626
Language English, Spanish, And French

READING: Scoring a 5 on the AP Test Has Just Become Easier You no longer have to choose between "teaching the work" or "teaching to the test." Prestwick House Advanced Placement Teaching Units allow you to do both. Because we wanted the Prestwick House AP Teaching Units to meet the rigorous demands of the Advanced Placement class, we wrote detailed study guides that focus on the types of literary knowledge your students will have to demonstrate on their AP exams.


The Book De gifhouten bijbel
The Author Barbara Kingsolver
The Publisher Prometheus
Release Date2014-08-14
Genre Fiction
Pages
ISBN 9789044627817
Language English, Spanish, And French

READING: Eind jaren vijftig trekt Nathan Price met zijn vrouw Orleanna en hun vier dochters naar een dorp in Congo om de bevolking tot het christendom te bekeren. De onderneming is van begin af aan gedoemd te mislukken. Het gezin is niet ingesteld op de harde, primitieve levensomstandigheden, en Nathans fanatisme en onbegrip voor zijn omgeving roepen gevaarlijke reacties over hen af. Als de kerk zijn handen van Nathan aftrekt en de onrust in Congo toeneemt, vlucht Orleanna met haar dochters door het oerwoud naar de bewoonde wereld. De gifhouten bijbel is een meeslepende familiegeschiedenis en een ontnuchterend verslag van de gruwelen van religieus fundamentalisme in een uitgebuit land tussen kolonialisme en onafhankelijkheid. Barbara Kingsolver publiceerde diverse verhalenbundels en romans. Voor De gifhouten bijbel ontving ze internationaal diverse prijzen, waaronder The American Booksellers Book of the Year. `Dit boek raakt je op een onvergetelijke manier. Oprah Winfrey `Een geweldige roman () die de schrijfster nieuwe fans zal bezorgen. The Library Journal `Onweerstaanbare familiegeschiedenis met een scherpzinnige kijk op westers imperialisme in Afrika. Publishers Weekly `Kingsolver is een subliem stiliste. NRC Handelsblad


The Book Seeds of Change
The Author Priscilla Leder
The Publisher Univ. of Tennessee Press
Release Date2010-09-01
Genre Literary Criticism
Pages 308
ISBN 9781572337350
Language English, Spanish, And French

READING: Barbara Kingsolver's books have sold millions of copies. The Poisonwood Bible was nominated for the Pulitzer Prize, and her work is studied in courses ranging from English-as-a-second-language classes to seminars in doctoral programs. Yet, until now, there has been relatively little scholarly analysis of her writings. Seeds of Change: Critical Essays on Barbara Kingsolver, edited by Priscilla V. Leder, is the first collection of essays examining the full range of Kingsolver's literary output. The articles in this new volume provide analysis, context, and commentary on all of Kingsolver's novels, her poetry, her two essay collections, and her full-length nonfiction memoir, Animal, Vegetable, Miracle: A Year of Food Life. Professor Leder begins Seeds of Change with a brief critical biography that traces Kingsolver's development as a writer. Leder also includes an overview of the scholarship on Kingsolver's oeuvre. Organized by subject matter, the 14 essays in the book are divided into three sections tha deal with recurrent themes in Kingsolver's compositions: identity, social justice, and ecology. The pieces in this ground-breaking volume draw upon contemporary critical approaches—ecocritical, postcolonial, feminist, and disability studies—to extend established lines of inquiry into Kingsolver's writing and to take them in new directions. By comparing Kingsolver with earlier writers such as Joseph Conrad and Henry David Thoreau, the contributors place her canon in literary context and locate her in cultural contexts by revealing how she re-works traditional narratives such as the Western myth. They also address the more controversial aspects of her writings, examining her political advocacy and her relationship to her reader, in addition to exploring her vision of a more just and harmonious world. Fully indexed with a comprehensive works-cited section, Seeds of Change gives scholars and students important insight and analysis which will deepen and broaden their understanding and experience of Barbara Kingsolver's work. Priscilla V. Leder has published articles in Mississippi Quarterly, ISLE (Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment), Amerikastudien/American Studies, and Southern Studies. She is professor of English at Texas State University—San Marcos.


The Book The Poisonwood Bible by Barbara Kingsolver
The Author Llewellyn Johns
The Publisher
Release Date2001
Genre
Pages 22
ISBN OCLC:222996125
Language English, Spanish, And French
The Book The Poisonwood Bible Multiple Critical Perspectives
The Author Barbara Kingsolver
The Publisher
Release Date2011-01-01
Genre
Pages
ISBN 1935468650
Language English, Spanish, And French

READING: Probe the depth and richness of your favorite titles and usher your students into an understanding of what really made us want to teach literature in the first place. Each guide offers clear and concise explanations of three different critical perspectives.


The Book Kingsolver s Poisonwood Bible
The Author Maureen Downs
The Publisher
Release Date2001
Genre Feminism and literature
Pages 130
ISBN OCLC:55688342
Language English, Spanish, And French

READING: From the author's abstract: "In her novel The Poisonwood Bible Barbara Kingsolver uses the story of a white Baptist missionary family that has followed the minister father of the family, Nathan Price, to the African Congo in order to convert the native people. Issues of oppression and subordination on a national, international and individual level are explored. This culminating project will explore Virginia Woolf's idea of a woman's sentence interpreted as a period of time served as in a jail sentence and the use of women's culture as described by Gerda Lerner as a tool for ending women's oppression. Both of these ideas will be illustrated through an analysis of Barbara Kingsilver's [sic] The Poisonwood Bible focusing of the mother of the family, the character Orleanna Price, and her experiences both in the U.S. before they went to Africa and her gradual awakening through her suffering and survival during her time in Africa."


The Book Authority Through Polyvocality in the Poisonwood Bible
The Author Emily C. Williams
The Publisher
Release Date2012
Genre
Pages
ISBN OCLC:796002369
Language English, Spanish, And French

READING: I explore how the structure of Barbara Kingsolver's The Poisonwood Bible invites the reader to accept narrators' authority in different ways depending on their temporal situatedness. I examine how a retrospective, extradiegetic perspective contrasts with limited, homodiegetic and intradiegeitc perspectives among female narrators. I analyze the strengths and weaknesses of each approach, as well as how they shape one another. I discuss how the intersection of these voices develops the identity and enhances the authority of each narrator. Kingsolver employs polyvocality to bring female voices out of marginalization in order for readers to hear and respect their testimonies.


The Book Theories and Texts
The Author Walter Hölbling
The Publisher LIT Verlag Münster
Release Date2007
Genre Literary Criticism
Pages 328
ISBN 9783825808099
Language English, Spanish, And French

READING: Theories and Texts, a guide written by students for students, explores the critical ideas of twelve of the most influential philosophers of the last 150 years - Marx, Freud, Bakhtin, Lacan, Derrida, Barthes, Foucault, Bhaba, as well as a variety of feminist critics (Kristeva & the French feminists, black feminists, and theological feminists), New Historicists, and Postcolonialists. Carefully "digested" and then set out in lucid and easily accessible language, these essays explain major ideas of each critical approach and exemplify them through practical application to one or more literary texts. At a time when "theory" is on everybody's lips and yet is often more of a deterrent than an attraction for students of literature and culture, these essays show how theories can enrich our understanding of literature, facilitate our analysis of a particular text, elucidate the multiple layers of meaning, and thus significantly enhance the juissance in our acts of reading.


The Book A Study Guide for Barbara Kingsolver s The Poisonwood Bible
The Author Cengage Learning Gale
The Publisher
Release Date2015
Genre
Pages 23
ISBN 1535838922
Language English, Spanish, And French
The Book The Extension of Life
The Author R. A. York
The Publisher Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press
Release Date2003
Genre Literary Criticism
Pages 178
ISBN 0838639895
Language English, Spanish, And French

READING: Studies ten American novels from the later twentieth century in the light of theories of narration and of the recent debate on the nature of fiction. After an introduction to the theoretical background, it analyzes works by Malamud, Bellow, Capote, Barth, Doctorow, Morrison, Oates, Ford, Smiley, and Kingsolver, emphasizing the complementary tendencies in American fiction to documentation of historical conditions and to the free play of the creative writer, to factual record and to self-conscious fabulation. It argues that the tension between these two tendencies expresses an acute concern with the limitations of modern life, with the writer's drive to constitute a realm of freedom, and with the challenges of reconciling the two.


The Book
The Author 芭芭拉‧金索沃 (Barbara Kingsolver)
The Publisher 果力文化
Release Date2018-03-05
Genre Fiction
Pages 608
ISBN 9789869517171
Language English, Spanish, And French

READING: 所有的生靈都是共謀者 「如果母親和她的孩子這天沒有走這條小路, 那被擰斷的樹枝便會長得更粗壯,肥碩的蜘蛛也會活下來。 每個生命的軌跡都變了, 就因為你走了這條路,觸動了歷史。」 《毒木聖經》—— 一部「黑暗大陸」版《聖經》,一部以生態視角反思文明的重磅小說, 既是飽滿細膩的家庭史詩,也是磅礴銳利的歷史寓言! 《紐約時報》「年度最佳小說」、亞馬遜「一生中必看的100部小說」、 歐普拉&希拉蕊最愛的10本書、美國高中生指定必讀經典 ——小說家芭芭拉・金索沃代表作首度引入台灣! 馬奎斯、昆德拉之後,你為這樣一部好看的經典小說等了多久? ★創造出版神話,全美狂銷400萬冊,售出14國版權 ★名主持人歐普拉「千禧年以來最愛的10本書」 ★《紐約時報》「年度最佳小說」、《出版人周刊》「年度小說」 ★亞馬遜網路書店「一生中必看的100部小說」,讀者熱評逾3000則 ★美國高中生「必讀的26部經典」 ★雄踞《今日美國報》暢銷書榜逾2年半 ★作者獲頒美國人文領域最高榮譽「國家人文勛章」;被譽為當代美國文學最特殊的聲音、最受愛戴作家 【封面設計理念說明】 ◆封面由插畫家朱疋繪製設計,以精細筆觸描繪熱帶密林神秘、野性的氛圍,並以燙銀加工表現自然與理性的對照。 ◆畫面精巧安排書中具象徵意義的㺢㹢狓、綠曼巴蛇、灰鸚鵡與非洲動植物,繁茂枝葉間有獵食者潛伏環伺。 【本書簡介】 這裡,是神祕未開發的蠻荒大陸,是康拉德筆下難以馴化的黑暗之心; 這裡,也是鑽石象牙黃金橡膠棕櫚樹之地,是西方貪婪之眼必取的珍寶與礦脈。 Bangala,班加拉,剛果語,指珍貴之物;當發音微異,指毒木,白色樹液含劇毒。當美國白人牧師對著非洲剛果人布道時高喊「耶穌是班加拉」時,眾人聽到的卻是「耶穌是毒木!」——讚美主,哈利路亞!因為耶穌會使你騷癢難耐! 白人牧師堅信自己不講其他,只講真理和福音,但在這非洲紅土之上每時每刻寫下的,卻是一部「毒木聖經」。 一九五九年,美國浸信會白人牧師普萊斯帶著妻子和四個女兒來到比屬剛果傳教,欲在這片暗黑之地「拯救」非洲人的靈魂,迎來的,卻是一家人失序的開始。隔年,比屬剛果宣布獨立,突如其來的自由與生搬硬套的選舉制度,讓這塊土地上兩百多個非洲部族陷入了混亂;一年後,美國為了自身利益,隔海策劃了一場暗殺新總理的行動…… 蠻荒、文化、政治、暗殺的衝擊動盪,捲動了每個人的生命;自然中一物吃一物,人也只是其中的一種。危機悄然潛伏,瘟疫般的暴雨與嗜血的政治獵殺,在同一天展開…… 這五名被歷史與罪責俘虜的女性,她們的雙眼看見了什麼? 該如何穿越命運的叢林,走出自己的救贖? ◎五位女性的故事,是非洲的聲音,也是自我的覺醒 作者芭芭拉‧金索沃(Barbara Kingsolver),《時代》雜誌譽之為「語言魔法師」,《讀者文摘》列名為20世紀百大作家,並被視為美國當代文學最特殊的聲音——《毒木聖經》是她醞釀30年寫就的35萬字小說鉅著,中文版費時7年翻譯而成。 書名以「聖經」為潛文本,芭芭拉‧金索沃卻刻意讓「天父代言人」、固執宏辯的白人傳道牧師/父親消音,選擇以五位女性,即牧師太太和她的四個女兒,輪流用第一人稱視角敘述事件,構成本書最獨特的「女性、多音、複調」敘事結構。 芭芭拉‧金索沃花了一整年時間,訓練自己針對同一場景以不同角色觀點來敘述,才終於為這五位女性敘事者分別找出適合的口吻;書中更依照人物性格,分別使用大量回文和雙關語,甚至採用刻意的拼字錯誤,讓每個人物的性格躍然紙上,每種聲音獨特鮮明。書中女性的聲音,隱喻著非洲的聲音,也是醒覺的聲音,作者直陳「當年在剛果發生的事,是世界上很多國家和地區的歷史縮影,從中可以微縮地看到一種文化是怎樣以災難性的方式,把自己的傳統強加給另一種文化。我希望講述這個故事,也邀請讀者來發現自己在這個故事中的位置。」 ◎以百科全書般的知識,刻寫自然萬物 金索沃童年曾在剛果生活,自述「我再也無法擺脫那些曾經攝入體內的非洲碎片」;加上一九六〇年代美國政治黑手介入後殖民時期剛果,作者視此干預為一個世紀的國際政治寓言縮影,加上她個人對文化宰制、政治與罪責的長期省思,使她決定將小說背景設在非洲的中心,以未被馴化的自然,作為對話西方理性與殖民文化的場景。 由於金索沃在大學及研究所主修生物學、生態學,擁有廣博的自然知識,使她能夠跳脫以「人」為最高宰制力量的視角,形成作品裡冷靜而超然的視野;寫作此書期間,她更移住非洲兩年以深入感受此地生態特色,熱帶特有之色彩、氣味、聲音躍然紙上。書中各章,作者巧妙織入非洲動植物與生態的獨特描述,呈現大自然不可忽視的力量: à㺢㹢狓(Okapi)、灰鸚鵡、獅子、螞蟻軍團、巨鱷、綠曼巴蛇⋯⋯處處有食物鍊更高層的飢餓者虎視眈眈 à烈日、紅土、乾旱、暴雨、泥流、瘧疾⋯⋯理性文明不堪大自然的瞬間一擊 金索沃以百科全書般的知識細寫自然萬物,人性幽微交纏歷史洪流——深切、美麗、殘酷、磅礡。 ◎以「非洲性」解構《聖經》 正如書名所暗喻,本書既呼應又解構《聖經》。作者以《聖經》卷名建立小說結構,書中引用大量聖經故事及經文,卻又不斷以未知且不可控的「非洲性」災難,瓦解西方文明秩序與教義,從中交織出複雜且反諷的隱喻: 「創世紀」隱喻西方文明與非洲造物的首度遭遇,「士師記」以啟蒙之名進行一場失衡的交易,「啟示錄」刻寫將至的災難與對未來的預警,「神與蛇」象徵大自然的反噬,「出埃及記」召喚女性主體脫離宰制的行動,「三童之歌」寫倖存者如何面對罪責並嘗試走出宿命⋯⋯ 書末,作者更另闢新章,以象徵靈性與精神力量的「樹之眼」,寫下人與自然和解之後,覺醒的聲音。 ◎創造出版神話的當代文學經典 「如果我的這本小說,能把你帶到一片從未涉足的土地,讓你經歷一種從未想像過的人生——那裡沒有電、沒人見過汽車,卻有震撼人心的、美妙的思想與傳統,足以解答一些普世的問題——如果我能把你帶到那裡去,讓你對假想中的陌生人產生共鳴,感受到他們的希望與痛苦,你就能將其中的體悟融入你自己的人生。」 ——作者芭芭拉・金索沃 《毒木聖經》以對自然的細膩描畫、多視角的敘事形式,讓故事與場景充滿了電影鏡頭般的真實感,贏得純文學與通俗讀者的雙重肯定,成為珍・奧斯汀之外最受歡迎的讀書會文本;讀者引頸企盼電影改編,並有眾多年輕粉絲自定角色、自拍短片,向本書致敬。 本書被譽為「創造出版神話」的當代文學經典名作,獲選為《紐約時報》《出版人周刊》「年度最佳小說」、亞馬遜「一生中必看的100部小說」、歐普拉&希拉蕊最愛的10本書、美國高中生指定必讀經典,雄踞《今日美國報》暢銷書榜逾二年半,熱銷四百萬冊,譯為十四國語言。作者亦因長期關注人權、社會責任與環境議題,獲頒美國人文領域最高榮譽「國家人文勛章」。 ◎媒體盛讚 ★金索沃是語言的魔法師,具備極高的天賦。——《時代》雜誌 ★罕有一部作品能如此野心勃勃、富有魅力且大獲成功。我們何其幸運,見證了《毒木聖經》的問世。——《華盛頓郵報》 ★作者擁有一雙敏銳的眼睛。本書的人物與故事令人無法忘懷,久久縈繞於心。——《紐約時報》書評 ★一部震撼人心的史詩,作者用極其沉穩的筆觸,抵達了極致的美麗。——《洛杉磯時報》書評 ★毫無疑問,這本書是一場文學盛宴。——《波士頓環球報》 ★描寫父系霸權帶來的災難性後果,不管是之於個人、文化或政治,《毒木聖經》是我讀過最強大的書之一。——希拉蕊‧克林頓


The Book A genealogy of literary multiculturalism
The Author Christopher Douglas
The Publisher Cornell University Press
Release Date2009-02-19
Genre Literary Criticism
Pages 384
ISBN 9780801457289
Language English, Spanish, And French

READING: As an anthropology student studying with Franz Boas, Zora Neale Hurston recorded African American folklore in rural central Florida, studied hoodoo in New Orleans and voodoo in Haiti, talked with the last ex-slave to survive the Middle Passage, and collected music from Jamaica. Her ethnographic work would serve as the basis for her novels and other writings in which she shaped a vision of African American Southern rural folk culture articulated through an antiracist concept of culture championed by Boas: culture as plural, relative, and long-lived. Meanwhile, a very different antiracist model of culture learned from Robert Park's sociology allowed Richard Wright to imagine African American culture in terms of severed traditions, marginal consciousness, and generation gaps. In A Genealogy of Literary Multiculturalism, Christopher Douglas uncovers the largely unacknowledged role played by ideas from sociology and anthropology in nourishing the politics and forms of minority writers from diverse backgrounds. Douglas divides the history of multicultural writing in the United States into three periods. The first, which spans the 1920s and 1930s, features minority writers such as Hurston and D'Arcy McNickle, who were indebted to the work of Boas and his attempts to detach culture from race. The second period, from 1940 to the mid-1960s, was a time of assimilation and integration, as seen in the work of authors such as Richard Wright, Jade Snow Wong, John Okada, and Ralph Ellison, who were influenced by currents in sociological thought. The third period focuses on the writers we associate with contemporary literary multiculturalism, including Toni Morrison, N. Scott Momaday, Frank Chin, Ishmael Reed, and Gloria Anzaldúa. Douglas shows that these more recent writers advocated a literary nationalism that was based on a modified Boasian anthropology and that laid the pluralist grounds for our current conception of literary multiculturalism. Ultimately, Douglas's "unified field theory" of multicultural literature brings together divergent African American, Asian American, Mexican American, and Native American literary traditions into one story: of how we moved from thinking about groups as races to thinking about groups as cultures-and then back again.